The power of the unit depends on several factors, for example, the recommended power for an air source heat pump installed in a 2-bedroom house is 5 kW, and a 12,000 BTU unit will use about 3.5 kW per hour. However, heat pumps typically use 15, 000 watts. The size of the air source heat pump you need will vary, but the average household needs a model with a power rating of between 4 kW and 16 kW. The same applies to the size of the terrestrial source heat pump.
It is important to note that the efficiency of the heat pump is highly dependent on the temperatures of the source and the sump. Just as a steeper slope requires more effort to climb a bike, larger temperature differences between the heat pump source and sump require you to work harder and can reduce efficiency. Determining the correct size of the heat pump is critical to maximizing seasonal efficiency. These aspects are discussed in more detail in the sections Air Source Heat Pumps and Ground Source Heat Pumps.
Air-to-air systems are more efficient when the temperature difference between indoors and outdoors is smaller. Because of this, air-to-air heat pumps generally try to optimize their efficiency by providing a larger volume of warm air and heating that air to a lower temperature (typically between 25 and 45 °C). This is in contrast to oven systems, which provide a smaller volume of air, but heat that air to higher temperatures (between 55°C and 60°C). If you are switching to a heat pump from an oven, you may notice it when you start using the new heat pump.
Installing an air source heat pump can offer you a number of benefits. This section explores how air source heat pumps can benefit your home's energy footprint. Depending on the season, the seasonal heating performance factor (HSPF) of commercially available units can vary from 7.1 to 13.2 (region V). It is important to note that these HSPF estimates are for an area with a climate similar to Ottawa.
Real savings largely depend on the location of the heat pump installation. Today, air source heat pumps represent one of the most promising technologies for heating and cooling our homes. They allow a significant reduction in our energy consumption. It is important to note that the vast majority of heat pumps with air source have a minimum operating temperature, below which they cannot operate.
For newer models, it can range from -15° C to -25° C. Below this temperature, a supplementary system should be used to provide heating to the building. To properly size your heat pump system, it's important to understand your home's heating and cooling needs. It is recommended to hire a heating and cooling professional to perform the necessary calculations.
Heating and cooling loads should be determined by a recognized dimensioning method, such as CSA F280-12, Determination of the required capacity of residential space heating and cooling appliances. Air source heat pumps must be installed by a qualified contractor. Consult a local heating and cooling professional to determine the size, installation and maintenance of your equipment to ensure efficient and reliable operation. If you want to implement a heat pump to replace or supplement your central furnace, you should keep in mind that heat pumps generally operate with higher air flows than furnace systems.
Depending on the size of the new heat pump, some modifications to the ducts may be necessary to avoid additional noise and fan energy consumption. Your contractor will be able to provide you with guidance on your specific case. Air source heat pumps have a service life of between 15 and 20 years. The compressor is the critical component of the system.
On average, a well-designed ground-source system will deliver savings of 10-20% more than a best-in-class cold weather air source heat pump sized to cover most of the building's heating load would provide. This is due to the fact that underground temperatures are higher in winter than air temperatures. As a result, a ground source heat pump can provide more heat during winter than an air source heat pump. Unlike airsource heat pumps, ground-source systems do not require a defrost cycle.
Underground temperatures are much more stable than air temperatures, and the heat pump unit itself is located indoors, so frost problems do not arise. As with airsource heat pumps, ground source heat pump systems are available in a range of different efficiencies. See the previous section titled Introduction to Heat Pump Efficiency for an explanation of what POPs and EERs represent. The COP and EER ranges for commercially available units are provided below.
The Canadian Standards Association (CSA) currently verifies the electrical safety of all heat pumps. A performance standard specifies the tests and test conditions under which the heating and cooling capacities and efficiency of the pump are determined. Performance testing standards for terrestrial source systems are CSA C13256 (for secondary loop systems) and CSA C748 (for DX systems). Unlike air source heat pumps, ground source heat pumps require an onshore heat exchanger to collect and dissipate heat underground.
Regardless of the arrangement you choose, all piping for antifreeze solution systems must be at least 100 series polyethylene or polybutylene with thermally fused gaskets (unlike barbed fittings, clamps or glued joints), to ensure leak-free connections for the entire service life of the pipeline. If properly installed, these pipes will last between 25 and 75 years. They are not affected by chemicals found in the soil and have good heat conduction properties. Antifreeze solution must be acceptable to local environmental officials.
DX systems use refrigeration grade copper tubing. Horizontal loop installations use trenches from 150 to 600 mm (6 to 24 in. This leaves bare areas that can be restored with grass or turf seeds. Vertical loops require little space and cause less damage to the lawn.
Land-based heat pumps generally have a life expectancy of about 20 to 25 years. This is higher than for air source heat pumps because the compressor has less thermal and mechanical stress and is protected from the environment. The service life of the ground circuit itself is approaching 75 years. An electrical service of 200 amps is normally required for the installation of an all-electric air heat pump or a ground source heat pump.
If you change from a heating system based on natural gas or fuel oil, it may be necessary to update your electrical panel. Air source heat pumps have a minimum operating temperature outside and may lose some of their ability to heat in very cold temperatures. Because of this, most air source installations require an additional heating source to maintain the indoor temperature during colder days. Additional heating may also be required when the heat pump is defrosting.
Most air source heat pumps have a power of between 4 and 15 kW, which represents their power. The larger your home and the higher your demand for hot water, the higher the production. For every square foot of living space, you need about 30 BTU of heat output. That means, for example, that for a 1,000-square-foot house, you would need a 30,000 BTU heat pump (that is, a 2.5-ton heat pump).
Air source heat pumps have a rated power in kW, which represents their power. For example, a power of 10 kW in a heat pump will mean that it supplies 10 kW of heat (depending on the outside air temperature). Most range from 4 kW to 15 kW. You'll want to investigate here.
As a general rule, the more demanding the heating needs of your home, the more powerful your heat pump will need. An air source heat pump is perhaps 400% efficient in comparison (that is, it has a COP of 4, we'll see what that means later), so to provide 10,000 kWh of heating we need to introduce 2,500 kWh of electricity. Sounds magical, right? Well, there's no such thing as magic. For example, water boils at 100°C (212°F), and as it boils, it carries heat like steam.
Refrigerants have a much lower boiling point, for example, R134a boils at -26.3°C (-15.34°F) and R410A boils at -48.5°C (-55.3°F), so even when the outside air is very cold, we can capture enough energy to cause the refrigerant to boil and, as it boils, it carries thermal energy towards the inside of the building. Obviously, the warmer the outside air is, the more heat energy will have to be collected and, at a certain point, it becomes uneconomical for the cost of electricity consumption to capture energy. Our expert will answer your questions live on March 10 at 14:30. An air source heat pump can provide efficient heating and cooling for your home.
When properly installed, an air source heat pump can deliver up to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. This is possible because a heat pump transfers heat instead of converting it from a fuel, such as combustion heating systems. However, sizing an air source heat pump is not a simple process and requires an experienced professional to calculate the best size for your home. The second type simply shuts off the air source heat pump when the outside temperature drops below a specified level.
Therefore, there is a possibility that your current radiators will be suitable for turning off the lower temperatures offered by a heat pump. When you need to size a heat pump, everyone knows to look at Manual J (the alpha and omega book of HVAC sizing) and follow the 8 rules. Actual energy savings will vary depending on local climate, existing heating system efficiency, fuel and electricity costs, installed heat pump size, drill field configuration and seasonal energy balance, and heat pump efficiency performance under conditions of CSA qualification. The size of the heat pump varies depending on whether you choose a ground source heat pump or an air source heat pump.
An MCS accredited heat pump installer will be able to accurately calculate your home's heating needs to find a suitable air source heat pump. Unlike gas boilers, which preheat water to a high temperature before turning it off, an air source heat pump keeps the water at a lower temperature. Similarly, if a heat pump is oversized, the desired energy savings may not be achieved due to inefficient operation under milder conditions. Of course, a double heat pump and a furnace can cost more and, given their current configuration, it will be more expensive to install them.
This is because they heat water before circulating it through a humid central heating system, such as radiators or underfloor heating. Usually, this option is more efficient than the air source because the soil has a higher density and heat capacity compared to air. The ability of the heat pump to transfer heat from outside air to the house depends on the outside temperature. .